Input Enhancement

Grammar tasks can be devised in a way that, on the one hand, enhance the grammatical features in the input, and on the other, provide L2 learners with opportunities to focus on meaning.


Scholars in second-language acquisition have agreed that L2 learners must be exposed to input, and that input must be comprehensible and meaning-bearing in order to facilitate L2 acquisition. L2 learners need support in order to process forms successfully in the input.


Learners must first notice a form in the input before that form can be processed. Given the importance of ‘noticing’ a form in the input, the question is: how can we best facilitate the noticing of a certain form in the input?


Input enhancement is an approach to grammar instruction through which input is made more noticeable to the L2 learner. Input enhancement techniques help teachers to expose learners to comprehensible input and positive evidence while at the same time drawing the learner’s attention to some linguistic properties of the target language.


The target form is enhanced by visually altering its appearance in the text (italics, bold or underlined, for example). Oral input enhancement can also be provided by using special stress, intonation and gestures in spoken input.


Designing input enhancement tasks involve following these guidelines (see Wong 2005 ):

インプット強化のタスクは次のようなガイドラインに従って作成されます。(Wong 2005を参照 )

1) Determine the role that the enhancement will play in a lesson (e.g. noticing purposes)
2) Choose a form based on a clear form?meaning relationship
3) Choose a text that it is appropriate to the level of your students
4) Consider the frequency of exposure
5) Drawing learners’ attention to form within a meaningful context (use typographical cues such as bold and italic to draw learners’ attention to grammatical forms and provide meaning-bearing input)
6) Keep meaning in focus
7) Do not provide any metalinguistic explanation.

1) レッスンの中のどの部分を強化するのか決める(例:何に気付かせるのか)
2) 形と意味がはっきりした関係にある文法形式を選ぶ
3) 学習者のレベルにあった表現形式を選ぶ
4) どの程度の頻度で提示するか考える
5) 意味のある脈略(コンテクスト)の中での形に注目させる(文法形式は太字などの文字強調を使い、意味のある脈略の中で学習者に注目させる)
6) 意味を中心に据える
7) 文法そのものを説明するようなことはしない