1.2. Input enhancement-Textual enhancement

Input enhancement has been defined by Sharwood-Smith (1991) as a process by which linguistic data will become more salient for L2 learners. This form of intervention (enhancing the input to allow learners to notice some specific forms in the input) should effect changes in learners’ linguistic competence.


Sharwood-Smith ( 1991, 1993 ) has proposed various techniques to enhance the input, which differ in terms of explicitness and elaboration. A practical example would be to underline or to capitalize a specific grammatical item in a text to help learners notice that particular feature with the opportunity to help learners notice these forms and make form-meaning connections.


Textual enhancement for example makes use of typographical cues as bolding and italics to draw learners’ attention (noticing) to grammatical forms and provide learners with communicative input. The main guidelines to develop textual enhancement tasks are:


1) Establish a goal
2) Choose an appropriate form
3) Chose a text that it is appropriate to the level
4) Consider the frequency of exposure
5) Consider how you draw learners’ attention
6) Keep meaning in focus

1) 目標(ゴール)を定める
2) 適切な文法形式(項目)を選ぶ
3) レベルに見合った文字表記を選ぶ(漢字かなまじりの度合い)
4) 強調体の提示頻度を考える
5) どのように学習者の注意を引けばよいかを検討する
6) 意味の部分をしっかり保持する(意味のあるものでなければならない)

The advantages of this textual enhancement activity are listed below:


1) Learners can be exposed to more instances of a particular grammatical form and as a result of this, there are more chances that they will notice the form;
2) Learners will be exposed to meaning-bearing input from this type of tasks;
3) It is a form of input enhancement that can be easily integrated and it is easy to use.

1) 学習者はある文法形式について、より目につく機会を多く持ち、それを通してその形式について気付く機会も増える。
2) 学習者はこのようなタスクを通して意味のあるインプットを提供される。
3) これはインプット強調の形式であり、たやすく応用可能で、実際に簡単に使用できる。