Output-based instruction

Input plays an essential role in second-language acquisition. However, input is not sufficient to develop the ability to use language in a communicative context.


The fact that learners incorporate structures and forms in their internal system does not mean they can have automatic access for speech production. Access is the ability to express a particular meaning by retrieving a particular form or structure (VanPatten 2003 ).


In traditional grammar instruction practice, L2 learners do not necessarily have to understand the stimulus (lack of meaning) and only one response is possible (mechanical practice). Mechanical practice does not make use of the same brain processes as those involved in accessing language during communicative language use.


Can classroom output practice focusing on form also be practice that focuses on information exchange? Learners should understand the meaning of both the stimulus and their answer. There should be an exchange of unknown information. The range of learner responses is open as there is no single correct response.